Biyernes, Pebrero 24, 2017



A Research
Presented to
the Imus Institute of Science and Technology
City of Imus, Cavite

In Partial Fullfilment
of the Requirements of the Subject
Practical Research 1



March 2017
Chapter 1

Gambling has been part of human civilization for thousands of years. The continuous growth of gaming in Asian economies, particular in Macau, shows how people in society embraces gambling over the last 15 years (Medoza and Richardson 2015). Throughout the existence of the Filipinos after the Spanish colonization in the Philippines, one of the prior changes that happened in the country’s culture is having the adoptism of gambling.   Considered as part of the Filipino tradition, the Philippine version of Spanish tarot cards or “sakla” is commonly observed during funeral nights where one might expect to see people gambling. In addition, the native gambling “sakla” is consists of 48 cards consisting different characters and a board where the same cards are place to bet on. For Imuseños, the board is known as “Latagang Imus”, on the other hand, the cards are called “Barahang tagalog” in Cavite which is operated by a group of personnel, or the so-called “bangka”.
Saklaan is not just a making wages for nothing,  it has its own purpose on why this event occurs similarly when the wakes are presented. There will be a sharing of winning within the operators and the family. Therefore, it allows the concerned family to raise the needed money for the funeral ceremonies. According to Randolf David, a sociology professor of UP Diliman, gambling has its own function that keeps the mourners around. It lasts for more than a week just to attain the extra expenses needed for the burial. Some illegal activities are found in streets and slam areas. Huge number of Filipinos patronizing those illegal activities it is because of having a big chance of winning a jackpot with cheap bets compared to Casinos which are too expensive.
 However, some people find it disrespectful and considered as a flaw to Philippine culture. Instead of knowing its purpose, they find it annoying because of loosing of solemn mourning and paying much more tribute to the deceased person. Meanwhile, sakla somehow remains illegal because it does not contain tax unlike the other established agencies operated by Philippine Amusement and Gaming Corporation (PAGCOR) and Philippine Charity Sweepstakes Office (PCSO), which are both known as the largest contributor of revenue in Philippine Government.
Although the government and the other law do not want the Filipinos to patronize this gambling, the belief and traditions in saklaan is still granted by the other authorities due to its good benefits among the operators and the concerned family. Thus, the sharing of money really happened that will be soon used for other expenditure. Gambling may end up into addiction if it was not properly handled. But having a prior knowledge on every act can decreases the possibility of having a bad outcome. This study will provide an overview of sakla operation during funeral wakes. It wil unlock the awareness of every people about native gambling, specifically the so-called sakla.

Statement of the Problem    
This study aims to answer the following general question:
What is the importance of native gambling “sakla”?
The following specific questions will be answered:
1.      What are the requirements to organize “sakla” during the wake?
2.      What agreement exists between the “sakla” operators and the concerned family?
3.      What are the benefites of “sakla” operation for the:
a.       Sakla Operator;
b.      Bereaved families; and
c.       Gamblers?

Conceptual Framework
Figure 1: Schematic Diagram of the Study
Figure 1 illustrates the schematic diagram of the study entitled “Sakla”, a common funeral practice of Imuseños. The input includes the stated problem of the study which is done through interviews among the respondents. The research is expected to have the overview of the sakla operation during funeral wakes.   

Text Box: • Overview of “sakla” operation during funeral wakes.Text Box: • In-depth interview of:
a. Sakla operators
b. Sakla players; and
c. Bereaved family
Text Box: • The requirements organize “sakla” during the wake.
• Existing agreement between the sakla operators and the concerned family.
• The benefits of “sakla” operation among:
a. Sakla operators
b. Bereaved family; and
c. Gamblers
            INPUT                                       PROCESS                                OUTPUT


Significance of the Study
            The researcher intended to enrich the knowledge of the Filipino citizen about the native gambling happening on funeral known as “saklaan” or “sakla”.
            To Society. This study will provide an overview of the sakla. It will also help the society to understand why some Filipinos engages on some gambling activities.
To Filipino Bettor. This study enables them to find out the importance of the gambling. Moreover, this research study will provide them some information and awareness on how they can help on the concerned family funeral expenses.
            To Authorities. This study can provide them some gathered data that they may use on seeing the good benefits of the “sakla”. Additionally, it offers some knowledge on why it should be legalized in nearby places where funeral is located.
To the Personnel/Operators. The study will inform the Filipino community about their importance on leading the events like funerals. It will help them to pursue their jobs even more because of the conducted study.
            For the Future Researchers. This study will serve as their guide on conducting a qualitative research. It will also contribute a lot for the students, who also have some interest on studying the topic, to have a concrete source.

Scope and Delimitation
            The study focuses on the contribution of the native gambling, sakla on funeral practices. The respondent of the study is limited to a family, an organization of operators and selected sakla players living in City of Imus, Cavite specifically in some streets of Bayan Luma. The researcher will find a place where both funeral and gambling is present. The chosen place is located nearby the researcher’s residence which is Bayan Luma City of Imus, Cavite.

Definition of Terms
            Bereaved in adjectives, describes a greatly saddened of a person because of death of a certain person.
            Expenditure is another term for expenses.
            Operators are also known as “Balasador”, “bangka”, table manager and personnel.        They’re the group of people who are employed in a certain type of organization.
PAGCOR or the Philippine Amusement and Gaming Corporation is a government-owned and controlled corporation established through the Presidential degree 1067 A.
PCSO or Philippine Charity Sweepstakes Office is also a government-owned and controlled corporation of the Philippines. It is mandated to do fund raising in order to provide health programs, medical assistance and charity funds. PCSO and PAGCOR are one of the great revenue contributors in the Philippines.
Sakla is a Filipino culture native gambling mostly seen in funeral wakes.
Spanish tarot cards are originally known as Baraja Español. They are the playing cards composed of 40-48 cards used in sakla operation.

Chapter 2

 Related Foreign Literature
            Nowadays, many people are engaged in gaming businesses especially in places like Macau and Las Vegas which are known for owning the largest gambling industry in the world. Gambling and investing are the two activities where money is being circulated however, comparisons are often made between them. Gambling is pertaining increasing the amount of money by taking chances on playing the stakes while investing, somehow put on money on offering profitable returns on the other hand, investing drives capitalism. One can change the world in a small way by just investing in companies for social or environmental aspects unlike gambling which does not have any stable positive contribution. Although it helps local economies, it will still eventually lead to unpleasant side effects. In addition, Chris Anderson an executive director of the Illinois Council on Problem and Compulsive Gambling, has said that gambling is not really about making money, it is about "action", and the lure of the big win. (Murcko, 2014).
Asians make up 80% of the whales in Las Vegas casinos and LA Times article noted that people of Asian descent are 10 times more likely to gamble than any other ethnic group. The passions of Asian gamblers extend to online gambling at a variety of top-rated online casinos and lead to the legality of Internet gaming in various Asian countries like China, Japan, Vietnam, South Korea, Singapore and Philippines. (Walker, 2015) Even though gambling is illegal in People’s Republic, its residents are on its highest rate, where wealthy Chinese earned a huge amount of money in casino contribution and profit (Fish, 2013). Chinese people have strong belief in fortune that encourages other Asian countries to gamble. (MA, 2014)
            Several jurisdictions planned to contemplate the Casino expansion to generate tax revenue, to create stable employment and to stimulate economic growth (St. Pierre et al., 2014). In relation with this, the opening of casino gambling industries can be beneficial on contributing large tax revenues for economic growth. (Wu & Chen as cited in Anderson (2005) & Guli (2009))

Related Local Literature
The Presidential Decree no. 1602 clearly articulates the prescribing of stiffer penalties on illegal gambling whereas, Philippine Gambling Laws and other City and Municipal ordinances in gambling all over the country will have more effective action in combating social menace which dissipate the energy and other people’s resources. ( Amending some certain provisions of it, Republic Act no. 9287 mainly focuses on eradicating of illegal number games in part of the country. With the act of increasing of penalties, it will ensure the independence of the people and will promote full employment and rising standard of living for improved quality of life of all. (
In relation with this, President Duterte stated that there will be no benefits to get from gambling. On 22th of December 2016, he first ordered to close all the form of online gambling in the Philippines. He also added that the government has no mechanism to regulate the industry. (Krishnamoorthy, 2016)
Despite of the laws and ordinances about illegal gambling, Filipinos are still in into that certain situation. Some people are continuously succeeding in engaging gambling business due to lack of enforcement running in the country. After all, there are some Filipinos who find gambling as a life strategy especially in finding jobs like PCSO Lotto outlet which can be in demand more likely when it almost reaches the half a million bet. Moreover, if gambling will be legalized, most of the Filipinos will chase after the franchise and will earn money from it (Balane, 2012). In contrary of what Castell & Tanchuo (2016) said, gambling is described as “habitual and pervasive social activity” that should have been diminished to have a more productive pursuit like savings. (Pabico as cited in Castell & Tanchuo 2014)
 There are still more existing street gambling practices in the country and yet too popular. The most common native gambling games during wakes which is “sakla”. It is the combination of gambling and funerals where the portion of cash often covers the funeral costs. Some small business like bingo, poker, majhong and even fighting spiders are held together with the sakla operation. (Espinosa, 2016)

Related Foreign Studies      
            Several Asian families and communities in New Zealand were investigated about the impacts of gambling and problem gambling on their health and well-being. Residence living in New Zealand shared their thoughts regarding the reasons on why they are still engaging it. Moreover, the study also provides an in-depth interview between the person regarding their experience in problem-gambling. (Sobrun-Maharaj, 2012) Similarly to Defabbro (2012), he defined the negative impacts of gambling in Australia particularly for the government who are both agents of diminishing gambling and liberalization of it. 
            Meanwhile, a correlation between social problems and gambling are determined by researchers from University of Arkansas System (2016). It might lead to delinquency and illegal behavior of people. Consequently, problem gambling is an ecological issue which may need multiple agencies to work together in finding solution.
            On the other hand, a research proposal in America (2011) shows the brighter side of gambling where people can avail job opportunities once they support gambling. Nowadays, gambling industry becomes a global industry.

Related Local Studies
Philippine Amusement and Gaming Corporation or PAGCOR captivates customers with its world-class entertainment experience, improved infrastructure, more competitive facilities and highly professional man power. Thus, it is considered as first largest contributor of revenue after the tax and custom activity in the Philippines. It showcases the exceptional Filipino way of serving customers that somehow promotes Philippine tourism, culture and arts. In addition, PAGCOR helps the government in other participating governance like handling programs, maintaining social responsibilities and operating works as well. (University of Arkansas System, 2016)
            Business involving gambling is quite difficult and will take a lot of risks on accepting that kind of job. Baylon (2012) showed the overall view of Filipino gambling. He also stated that the government sees the positive outcome of having gambling industries in the country which contradicted the religious sects. There are two kinds of gambling, first is the legalized activity which are held in the government establishment while the second is the illegal way. Moreover, the main factors like because of poverty, increasing of unemployed people and culture let the Filipinos continue their involvement in illegal gambling.

            A thorough review of the researcher, both local and foreign, presented the different perceptions beyond gambling activities. There are some discussed reports about the new face of gambling, mainly the “online” that is somehow constricted by the authorities. But then, any gambling types is prohibited by the law and there will be an imposed penalty for it inhibits negative effects on society as well. Nevertheless, there is still an existing benefit beyond such activity that makes gambling be preferable to other people.
In some instances, the cited articles and studies are closely-related to this study This research also aims to know the importance, effects and benefits people will get from gambling. However, the study only focuses on the overview of specific type of gambling which is “sakla”.


Research Design

The qualitative phenomenology is an extensive methodological approach which aims to gather the deeper understanding of human behavior in regards to their experiences. The research design is an appropriate preliminary action to the study to furtherly understand the overview of the operation. The gathered data were based on their personal point of view of the participants or around their perceptions on the particular   phenomenon. In addition to this, the respondents of the research were properly investigated on how and why they are being involved in such gambling activities.
 Moreover, through qualitative method the sensitivity of the topic to the participants are well-managed.

Research Participants

Sakla operations were usually observed together with the funeral wakes at night.
The respondents are the gamblers, bereaved families and sakla operators. The researcher gathered 22 participants: 10 gamblers, 8 bereaved families and 5 of the sakla personnel. The parties such as gamblers and the bereaved families are always available unlike sakla personnel or operators, they are commonly seen in night funeral wakes and only had a limited time because of the preparation held in the game.

Research Instrument

Through structured interviews, in accordance to the survey questionnaires, the respondents are able to deliver their thoughts well. The researcher provided the participants a guide questionnaire to let them see the questions first before answering it through in-depth interview.
The questionnaire was grouped into three: for the gamblers, bereaved families, and sakla operators. Each group of respondents have different corresponding questions that mainly focuses on their gambling activities.
All the participants are being asked about the additional information they like to share about the sakla operation to provide more knowledge of the researcher as well. Consequently, the unfamiliar words made the interview to become an open-ended one.

Sampling Techniques

The gathering of data has a process of selecting the number of individuals needed in the study. The targeted population is in the town of Bayan Luma in City of Imus Cavite where the researcher chose two different sampling techniques.
The non-probability sampling is the best way to this study and the sampling techniques like snowball and convenience are perceived in the study. The respondents are randomly chosen according to their availability especially for the sakla operators who can only offer a short period of time on interviewing. Another sampling type is the snowball because the other recommendations of the respondents in terms of suggesting individuals to answer the questionnaires are followed.

Chapter 4

This chapter overseen the analysis, presentation and interpretation of gathered data among three groups of respondents: gamblers, bereaved families, and sakla operators followed by the discussion of research findings.  
This study aims to provide an overview about the importance of native gambling sakla in the society. The presented data were studied to answer the questions in regard to the statement of the problem and these are the (1) Importance of native gambling “sakla” (2) Requirements needed to organize sakla (3) Existing agreements between sakla operators and concerned families and (4) Benefits of sakla operation. Since the study is a qualitative phenomenology, in-depth interviews were used and verbatim quotes were followed to support the researcher’s findings. Various statements were labeled in accordance to their specific groups, whether they are gamblers, operators or bereaved families.

(1) Requirements needed to organize “sakla” during wakes

            The participants, mainly the sakla operators were asked about conducting an operation such as sakla. There are no such needed requirements given on playing sakla. But before engaging it, there are some small talks happened within the operators and the tasked barangay officials.
“We will talk to some barangay authorities regarding the operation where it will serve as our consent. That’s the prior requirement needed in this certain kind of activity.” -Respondent no. 19 (BL6/51/M)

            Meanwhile, there are some factors of requirements needed on organizing sakla during funeral wakes. The objects such as latagan and card are needed, even bettors would be present to have a well-organized operation.
“We have latagan, cards and also the capital money. Capital money where use to have an initial cash-out whenever a bettor will luckily hit the right card. Moreover, we also invite some people to bet on our game.” Respondent no. 19 (BL6/51/M)
“It’s a card game, and you will place bet in the combination of card. Respondent no. 22 (Medicion/M)
“If there are some bettors arriving, then we will open the game/operation.” -Respondent no. 21 (Bucandala/M)
Moreover, there are no existing requirements for the family as long as members will agree on operating sakla.
“As long as there are no hustle talks with in the family, if all of them agree on this, then we will go. But of course, it is legalized to see the death person before operating the game.” -Respondent no. 19 (BL6/51/M)
“We don’t need any requirements at all. The family wanted to operate sakla to have funeral expenses” -Respondent no. 22 (Medicion/M)
            In the case of gamblers, there are no needed requirements before engaging the operation. All they need is to bet on their own risk and luck.

(2) Existing agreements between the sakla operators and the concerned family

            The obtained information regarding the existed agreement were acquainted among the specific group of people mainly the operators and the bereaved. Majority of the indigent families told that they were approached by the sakla operators and furtherly discussed the benefits beyond the operation.
“The operators discussed about the “saka” and all we can offer as great return to them is to provide them food.” -Respondent no. 13 (BL4/50/F)
“The operators promise to give the “tong” or the collected money to us.”- Respondent no. 12 (Bl4/46/F)
On the other hand, some operators stated that there will be no agreement at all as long as they see the corpse were there and adding the factor of families’ unworthy condition.
“We don’t have any talked anymore. As long as the dead person is present,”-Respondent no. 20 (BL4/36/M)

            Additionally, the other members of the family should concur to the operation before it was regulated by the operators.
My family agreed therefore, there will be no requirements at all and no specific talk happened between me and the operators.” -Respondent no. 14 (BL1/M)
“As long as they were no hustle talks within the family, if all of them will agree on this, then we will go. It is legalized to see the corpse to manage the game then.” -Respondent no. 19 (BL6/51/M)
“We don’t have any requirements at all.” -Respondent no. 20 (BL4/36/M)
“We don’t need any requirements at all. The family wanted to operate sakla to have funeral expenses. “-Respondent no. 21 (Medicion/M)

            In such agreement, the number of nights were also discussed within the two parties. The bereaved families appointed the length of time among the operators.
“It depends on the bereaved family how long they want to operate the game. They will give us a hint when the funeral wakes will end.” -Respondent no. 19 (BL6/51/M)
In some instance, the operators will suggest to spend more nights in conducting the operation in order to obtain the funeral expenses.
Sometimes, if we see the poor condition of the family, we will add some nights to add more money into the “tong”.” - Respondent no. 19 (BL6/51/M)

(3) Benefits of sakla operation among:
a.)    Sakla operators
Most of the operators came from different places in Imus but then gathered in the Bayan Luma area where the funeral was held. They were interviewed about the benefits of sakla to them, as operators. Sakla operation serves as their opportunities for a long time. Choosing this kind of work was not quite easy because there are a lot of factors on why they were engaged  and these are the loss of job opportunities, out of necessities moreover, the operation offers an immediate money in a night that’s why the operators keeps on engaging this type of activity.
“Let us just say, it is because of lack of necessities, no choice.” -Respondent no.22 (Medicion/M)
“In choosing this path, I can’t say that I actually choose this job but it’s because of the opportunity it offers. I’m a tricycle driver before and also have an unachieved ambition before but then I know the strategy of the game. Therefore, I will embrace this job. Moreover, it helps my family.” -Respondent no.19 (BL6/51/M)
“It’s because of how difficult the life is. No, not too difficult, but it (sakla) somehow helps us financially every day.” -Respondent no.23 (BL6/M)
“In companies, they were just like saving their money for their food expenses but this job we have an instant salary especially when we sometimes earn 3000 pesos in a night. Moreover, it is all free here.” -Respondent no. 20 (Bucandala/M)
“Ako ay laking hirap lamang at dahil sa kawalan ng trabaho at hirap na din ng buhay. Laking sugal din kasi ako e at paglaki ko eto na yung kinuha kong trabaho. (I am born in poverty and because of lack of job opportunities. Since I was a kid, I am already surrounded by gambling activities that’s why when I grew up, I pursue gambling as my work).” – Operator no.5

The cited information regarding the benefits of sakla unto them were answered based on their family needs and own basic needs. The collected money every wake will serve as their payment for their family’s expenses and their other necessities as well.
“When I entered this job, the salaries I got every wake really helps my family especially when there are sudden bills.” -Respondent no. 20 (BL4/36/M)
“It gives me an income to spend for my everyday needs.” -Respondent no. 23 (BL6/M)
“I have an income and provided everyday expenses to my family. Like that if we have no operation to manage, we don’t have any income to get. Luckily, tonight we have a play.” – Respondent no.23 (BL6/M)

Even so, a Personnel have seen the operation as an financial assistance in their own family expenses.
“Simple lang, yung sakla yung source of income ko. (It is simple, sakla serves as my source of income)” -Operator no. 4

On the other hand, aside of seeing sakla as a source of income, an operator stated the mutual benefits happening in between the families and the operators.
“Eto lang yung katangitanging trabaho na pwedekong kunin at alam kong nakatutulong ito sa gastusin ng pamilya ko. At tsaka nakatuutlong din kami sa pamilya nung patay at masaya akong makatulong sa ganoong paraan. (This is the only job I can pursue and I know it will help my family’s expenses. Moreover, we operators can help the families of the deceased and it is my pleasure to help those people in this way.) “-Operator no.2
Nakakatutulong sa may patay. Sa mga hindi kayang ipagpalibing kaagad lalo na sa kapos yung gagastusin, kung di magapasakla ng ganyan saan kukuha? Kaya mahirap yung sitwasyon. Ssaan sila kukuha ng gastusin? At saan kami kukuha ng income? Ang mahalaga dyan e, oo, sugal yang sakla pero wag lang labislabisin. (It really helps the death person’s family. For those who can’t afford the burial because of the lack of money, the expenses, if there are no operation like that, where will they get those payments? The situation is really hard. Where will they get the expenses? And where will we get our income? Yet, sakla is a gambling, the importance of that is to not make it an addiction.” -Operator no. 5
“Sakla, gambling yan e, pero malaking tulong. Maraming pamilya na ng namatayan are natulungan at nagkaroon ng gastusin dahil sa sakla. (Sakla is a gambling activities, but it is a great help. Many family of the dead are being helped and have their expenses through sakla operation.)” -Operator no. 4

b.)   Bereaved families
Various people from indigent families were interviewed on why they agree to the sakla operation and the following responses reflected the benefits given by saklaan unto them. Consequently, the sakla mainly helps the families in terms of payment in funeral services and expenses.
Malaking bagay tulad sa amin. Lalo kaming mga walang pagkukunan. Kung walang sakla, walang pamfuneraria. (It will be a great help especially for us family who doesn’t have any stable source. If there will no sakla, there will be also no funeral expenses and services).” -Bereaved family no. 12

      Sakla has been a tradition by every Filipinos during wake. Several families only knew the importance of sakla operation for it already introduced in the place
“Karaniwan na kasi sa lugar naming yun kaya yung pamilya ko eh pumayag kaagad dito. (My family accept this funeral practices immediately knowing that this is common in our area.)” -Bereaved family no. 3
“Noong mga oras na iyon blangko din ako e, hindi ko alm. Parang natural na sya sa lugar, nakagisnan na rito tuwing may patay. (I am so out-minded that time when they offered me this operation. But then, I noticed that it was a tradition here in our place every wake.)” – Bereaved family no. 1

“It will be a great help especially for us family who doesn’t have any stable works to lean on. If there will no sakla, there will be also no funeral expenses and services.” -Respondent no.12 (BL4/46/F)
“I have seen the biggest contribution of sakla to bereaved families before, that’s why I agree in this type of operation.” –Respondent no. 14 (BL1/M)

Terms such as “saka” or “tong” are the collected money to be given to the family. These will ensure the additional payment for the services gained by the deceased person.
“First of all, it really gives a financial assistance to the family of the deceased person. The “tong” or the collected money is provided for the funeral expenses, services and even in hospital bills” -Respondent no.11 (BL5/67/M)
In addition to this, the responses were based on their personal experiences. Some families undergo through a lot of benefits brought by sakla it includes the undying number of people who visited the funeral wakes that makes the mourning lessen.
“I noticed it in other families, sakla really helps them in terms of expenses. Moreover, it can maintain the number of people in the wakes that makes the funeral less mourn which is good for us.” -Respondent no. 9 (BL6/51/M)

c.) Gamblers
The participants, as gamblers mainly asked about the benefits brought by sakla unto them. The common people who doesn’t have any job in the area are mainly considered as gamblers but even the individuals who have a presentable job were engaged on it. The leisure it offers were the core reason given by the gamblers on engaging gambling.
Libangan lang kapag walang ginagawa. (It serves as one of my leisure time activities when I got nothing to do) -Gambler no. 6
“Pastime.” -Gambler no.4

However, some informants have corresponding answers aside of its leisure time benefits and these are having chances of winning in that particular activity and letting the person to escape from the situated problems.
Wala, gusto ko lang. Nagbabaka sakali na manalo. Pampalipas oras na din. (Nothing, I just want to play and just taking chances on winning. It also serves as my past time.)” – Gambler no. 3
“Madalas tumutulong sa akin to na makatakas sa problema sa bahay. Ito kasi yung nagsisilbing taga-libang ko kaya naglalaro ako nento. (It somehow helps me to escape from the problems I have in home. It serves as my reliever that’s why I play it” – Gambler no.8

These gathered answers were based on their own personal experiences and most of their statement were built up excitement-feeling and money-gaining.
“Sometimes I went there because I just want to have an enjoyment. Most of the time I went there not to bet” -Respondent no. 2 (BL5/48/M)
“It brings me excitement especially when your bet is on strike. It gives me thrill-feeling.” -Respondent no. 3 (BL1/51/M)
“Whenever I win, it gives me an extra profit. It also helps me to have an enjoyment for a while” -Respondent no. 9 (BL4/M)

While some tried their luck to win for their own and family’s necessities.
“It became beneficial whenever I win. I can buy some food for the next day and it enables me to have more savings especially when I want to buy stuffs. I can give an extra allowance to my kids through gambling.” -Respondent no.6 (BL5/39/F)

Society really have different perception to everything. Despite of the luck and excitement brought by sakla to other people, there are still some cited various factors that triggers them to play. It includes the influences of socialization additionally the activities it offers to your leisure time.
“You will encounter many people in sakla that gives way on making friends, and I think that’s the benefits of sakla for me. Moreover, it serves as my leisure time activity.” -Respondent no. 9 (BL5/41/F)

Chapter 5
                 This chapter summarizes the study by highlighting the main topic of the conducted research. The conclusions were drawn based of the findings done by the researchers from the previous chapter. Moreover, the recommendations were based on the reviews from the conclusions of the study.
This study was conducted for the purpose of having an overview about “sakla” as a common funeral practice of Imusenos. The scope of the study is limited among the areas of Imus specifically in barangays of Bayan Luma. Moreover, it also has a thorough review of various related literature and study regarding gambling activities to provide a prior knowledge about the research topic. A qualitative phenomenology was applied to highlight the experiences of the three group of informants which are the gamblers, bereaved families and the sakla operators about sakla. Consequently, this is done by in-depth interviews and questionnaires to have a salient results and findings.
Furthermore, the study sought to answer the following specific questions:
1. What is the importance of native gambling “sakla”?
            The gathered data


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